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Clinical Management

 Miscarriage Recurrent miscarriage
 Ectopic pregnancy Pregnancy of Unknown Location (PUL)
 Ultrasound Ceasarean Scar pregnancy
 Gestational trofoblastic disease Hyperemesis



Trinder J, Brocklehurst P, Porter R, Read M, Vyas S, Smith L. Management of miscarriage: expectant, medical, or surgical? Results of randomised controlled trial (miscarriage treatment (MIST) trial). BMJ 2006; 113: 879-889


Graziosi GC, Mol BW, Ankum WM, Bruinse HW. Management of early pregnancy loss. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004; 86: 337-346


Recurrent miscarriage

Stephenson M, Kutteh W. Evaluation and management of recurrent early pregnancy loss. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2007: 50: 132-145


Jauniaux E, Farquharson RG, Christiansen OB, Exalto, N. Evidence-based guidelines for the investigation and medical treatment of recurrent miscarriage. Human Reproduction 2006; 21: 2216-2222


Christiansen, OB, Nybo Andersen AM, Bosch E, Daya S, Delves PJ, Hviid TV, Kutteh WH, Laird SM, Li TC and van der ven K. Evidence-based investigations and treatments of recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril 2005; 83: 821-839


Dawood F, Quenby S and farquharson R. Recurrent miscarriage Current obstet Gynaecol 2004; 14: 247-253


Li TC, Makris M, Tomsu M, Tuckerman E and Laird S. Recurrent miscarriage: aetiology, management and prognosis. Human Reprod Update 2002; 8: 463-481


Quenby S, Vince G, Farquarson R and Aplin J. Recurrent miscarriage : a defect in nature's quality control?. Human Reprod 2002; 17: 1959-1963


Stephenson MD. Evaluation and management of recurrent early pregnancy loss. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2007: 50; 132-45


Franssen MTM, Korevaar J, et al. Management of recurrent miscarriage: evaluating the impact of a guideline. Hum Reprod 2007; 22:1298-1303.


Kaandorp SP, Goddijn M, van der Post JA, Hutten BA, Verhoeve HR, Hamulyák K, Mol BW, Folkeringa N, Nahuis M, Papatsonis DN, Büller HR, van der Veen F, Middeldorp S. Aspirin plus Heparin or Aspirin alone in women with recurrent miscarriage. N Engl J Med 2010;362:1586-96.


Pregnancy of Unknown Location (PUL)

Bignardi T, Condous G, Alhamdan D, Kirk E, Van Calster B, Van Huffel S, Timmerman D, Bourne T. The hCG ratio can predict the ultimate viability of the intrauterine pregnancies of uncertain viability in the pregnancy of unknown location population. Human Reprod Update 2008; 23: 1964-1967


Kirk E. Condous G, Van Calster B, Van Huffel S, Timmerman D, Bourne T. Rationalizing the follow-up of pregnancies of unknown location. Human Reprod 2007; 22: 1744-1750


Condous G, Van Calster B, Kirk E, Timmerman D, Van Huffel S, Bourne T. Prospective cross-validation of three methods of predicting failing pregnancies of unknown location. Human Reproduction 2007; 22: 1156-1160


Bottomley C, Van Belle V, Mukri F, Kirk E, Van Huffel S, Timmerman D, Bourne T. The optimal timing of an ultrasound scan to assess the location and viability of an early pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2009 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print]


Ectopic pregnancy

Kirk E, Papageorghiou AT, Condous G, Tan L, Bora S, Bourne T. The diagnostic effectiveness of an initial transvaginal scan in detecting ectopic pregnancy. Human Reprod 2007; 22: 2824-2828


Kirk E. Condous G, Van Calster B, Haider Z, Van huffel S, Timmerman D, Bourne T. A validation of the most commonly used protocol to predict the success of single-dose methotrexate in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Human reprod 2007; 22: 858-863


Hajenius PJ, Mol F, Mol BW, Bossuyt PM, Ankum WM, van der Veen F. Interventions for tubal ectopic pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; 24;(1):CD000324


Ceasarean Scar pregnancy

Ash A, Smith A, Maxwell D. Caesarean scar pregnancy. BJOG. 2007; 114: 253-263


Maymon R, Halperin R, Mendlovic S, Schneider D, Herman A. Ectopic pregnancies in a Caesarean scar: review of the medical approach to an iatrogenic complication. Hum Reprod Update. 2004; 10: 515-523


Gestational trofoblastic disease

Devriendt K. Hydatidiform mole and triploidy: the role of genomic imprinting in placental development. Human Reprod Update 2005; 11: 137-142


Petignat P, Billieux MH, Blouin JL, Dahoun S and Vassilakos P. Is genetic analysis useful in the routine management of hydatidiform mole? Human Reprod 2003; 18: 243-249



Jauniaux E, Johns J, Burton GJ. The role of ultrasound imaging in diagnosing and investigating early pregnancy failure. Ultrasound Obstet Gynaecol 2005; 25: 613-624


Bukowski R, Smith GC, Malone FD, Ball RH, Nyberg DA, Comstock CH, Hankins GD, Berkowitz RL, Gross SJ, Dugoff L, Craigo SD, Timor-Tritsch IE, Carr SR, Wolfe HM, D'Alton ME; FASTER Research Consortium. Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2007; 334: 836


Bottomley C, Bourne T. Dating and growth in the first trimester. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]



Ismail SK. Review on hyperemesis gravidarum. Best Prac Res Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 21: 755-769


Bottomley C, Bourne T. Management strategies for hyperemesis. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]