Review and opinions


 Nomenclature  Epidemiology  Aging  Genetics
 Endocrinology  Immunology  Pathology  Preconception care




Farquharson RG, Jauniaux E, Exalto N. Updated and revised nomenclature for description of early pregnancy events. Human reproduction 2005; 20: 3008-3011



Lash GE, Quenby S, Burton GJ, Nakashima A, Kamat BR, Ray J, Bulmer JN. Gestational Diseases: A workshop report. Placenta 2007; E-pub


Quenby S, Vince G, Farquarson R and Aplin J. Recurrent miscarriage: a defect in nature's quality control?. Human Reprod 2002; 17: 1959-1963


van Oppenraaij RH, Jauniaux E, Christiansen OB, Horcajadas JA, Farquharson RG, Exalto N; On Behalf of ESHRE Special Interest Group for Early Pregnancy (SIGEP). Predicting adverse obstetric outcome after early pregnancy events and complications: a review. Hum Reprod Update. 2009 Mar 7



Broekmans FJ, Knauff EA, te Velde ER, Macklon NS, Fauser BC. Female reproductive ageing: current knowledge and future trends. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 18: 58-65


Nybo Andersen AM, Wohlfahrt, J, Christens P, Olsen J and Melbye M. Maternal age and fetal loss: population based register linkage study. 2000; 320: 1708-1712



The ESHRE Capri Workshop Group. Genetic aspects of female reproduction. Human Reprod Update. 2008; 14: 293-307


Carp H, Guetta E, Dorf H, Soriano D, Barkai G, Schiff E. Embryonic karyotype in recurrent miscarriage with parental karyorypic aberrations. Fertil Steril 2006; 85: 446-450


Fransen MTM, Korevaar JC, Leschot NJ, Bossuyt PMM, Knegt AC, Gerssen-Schoorl KBJ, Wouters CH, Hansson KBM, Hochstenbach R, Madan K, van der Veen F, Goddijn M. Selective chromosome analysis in couples with two or more miscarriages: case-control study. BMJ 2005: 331; 137-41


Pellestor F, Anahory T, Hamamah S. The chromosomal analysis of human oocytes. An overview of established procedures. Human Reprod Update 2005; 11: 15-32


Morikawa M, Yamada H, Kato EH, Shimada S, Yamada T and Minakami H. Embryo loss pattern is predominant in miscarriages with normal chromosome karyotype among women with repeated miscarriage. Human reprod 2004; 19: 2644-2647


Macklon NS, Geraedts JPM and Fauser BCJM. Conception to ongoing pregnancy: the 'black box' of early pregnancy loss. Human Reprod Update 2002; 8: 333-343


Stephenson MD. Evaluation and management of recurrent early pregnancy loss. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2007: 50; 132-45



De Medeiros SF, Norman RJ. Human chorogonadotrophin protein core and sugar branches heterogeneity: basic and clinical insights. Human Reproduction Update. 2008; 15: 69-95


Elson J, Jurkovic D. Biochemistry in diagnosis and management of abnormal early pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 16: 339-344


Muttukrishna S, Jauniaux E, Greenwold N, McGarrigle H, Jivraj S, Carter S Elgaddal S, Groome N and Regan L. Circulating levels of inhibin A, activin A and fillistatin in missed and recurrent miscarriages. Human Reprod 2002; 17: 3072-3078


Chard T, Iles R and Wathen N. Why is there a peak of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in early pregnancy. Human Reprod 1995; 10: 1837-1840



Moffet A, Loke C. Immunology of placentation in eutherian mammals. Nat Rev Immunol 2006; 6: 584-594


Laird SM, Tuckerman EM, Cork BA, Linjawi S, Blakemore AIF and Li TC. A review of immune cells and molecules in women with recurrent miscarriage. Human Reprod Update 2003; 9: 163-174


Quenby S, Vince G, Farquarson R and Aplin J. Recurrent miscarriage : a defect in nature's quality control?. Human Reprod 2002; 17: 1959-1963


Hutton B, Sharma R, Fergusson D, Tinmouth A, Hebert P, Jamieson J, Walker M. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin for treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review. BJOG. 2007; 114: 134-142


Scott JR. Immunotherapy for recurrent miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 2: CD000112


Clark DA. Immunological Factors in Pregnancy Wastage: Fact or Fiction Am J Reprod Immunol 2008; 59: 277–300



Jindal P, Regan L, Fourkala EO, Rai R, Moore G, Goldin RD, Sabire NJ. Placental pathology of recurrent spontaneous abortion: the role of histopathological examination of products of conception in routine clinical practice: a mini review. Human Reprod 2007; 22: 313-316


Hakvoort RA, Lisman BAM, Boer K, Bleker OP, van groningen K, van Wely M and exalto N. Human Reprod 2006; 21: 1291-1294


Jauniaux E, Burton GJ. Pathophysiology of histological changes in early pregnancy loss. Placenta 2005; 26: 114123


Philipp T, Philipp K, Reiner A, Beer F and Kalousek DK. Embryoscopic and cytogenetic analysis of 233 missed abortions: factors involved in the pathogenesis of developmental defects of early failed pregnancies. Hum Reprod 2003; 18 :1724-1732.


Bricker L and Farquharson RG. Types of pregnancy loss in recurrent miscarriage: implications for research and clinical practice. Hum Reprod 2002; 17: 1345-1350


Stephenson MD, Awartani KA and Robinson WP. Cytogenetic analysis of miscarriages from couples with recurrent miscarriage: a case-control study. Hum Reprod 2002; 17: 446-451


Blanch G, Quenby S, Ballantyne ES, Gosden CM, Neilson JP and Holland K. Embryonic abnormalities at medical termination of pregnancy with mifepristol during first trimester: observational study. BMJ 1998; 316: 1712-1713


Preconception care

de Weerd S, Steegers EA, Heinen MM, van den Eertwegh S, Vehof RM, Steegers-Theunissen RP. Preconception nutritional intake and lifestyle factors: first results of an explorative study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003; 111: 167-172